Working Conditions Collective Agreement Definition

16 Oct Working Conditions Collective Agreement Definition

The extent of CB requires separate treatment as it is more difficult to determine than it appears. Such coverage is not linked to union membership, since a contract is likely to cover all workers in a particular entity, whether or not they are members of the union that negotiated it. In the United Kingdom and the United States, however, it is reasonably clear who is covered by a collective agreement. America, in particular, uses the language of «released» and «non-exempt» employees (established by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938), the former (usually senior executives and executives) not being covered by CB. If a collective agreement exists, the sites and staff involved are clearly defined. In other countries, the situation is also clear. In countries like Sweden, where the number of union members is very high and includes many groups of employees who could be considered exempt in America, coverage is also extremely high. But in France, for example, a collective agreement is less clearly defined. Many French trade unions formally refused to sign contracts, as this was contrary to communist ideology; they were covered in practice, even if they were not signatories. It is also well known that French trade union membership is a poor indication of the extent of workers` union membership. France, together with Germany, is also a case in which collective agreements are generally extended to an entire sector to cover enterprises and workers not directly involved (Traxler 1996). Employers seem to like multi-unionism in the workplace the least.

This has often led to an agreement with trade unions on uniform rules for workforce representation at company level, as in Italy. In some countries, such as the United States, the representation of a single union is established through a legal process. In others, the trade union movement in the workplace is merged into institutions of legal participation, giving works councils elected by all staff the right to information, consultation and codecision, while ensuring that management has a single counterpart with which to negotiate. While works councils in most countries cannot call strikes, they tend to have close relations with internal and external unions, not least because most of their members are also usually union members. .

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